食用花:如何在食谱中找到和使用它们

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12min read
概括

If you’ve ever enjoyed the beauty and aroma of a floral garnish on your dinner plate, or perhaps in a refreshing drink, you may be wondering what flowers are edible and how to use them in your own kitchen. Here’s what you need to know about edible flowers, plus some recommended varieties and recipes.

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我们可以同意许多花在视觉上美丽吗?我们在花园里种植它们,将它们作为礼物(以及承诺和道歉)作为礼物,并用它们来增美我们的房间。许多花朵也有天上的气味,几乎吸引了我们的授粉媒介。(从这个类别我排除Amorphophallus titanum,或“尸体花”,其气味被慈善地描述为“少年健身袜”。)但是,花不仅是眼睛糖果和可爱的香气,而且还具有至少可追溯至公元前140年的烹饪传统。

The popularity of using edible flowers as garnishes and in dishes has waxed and waned throughout history and cultures around the world. For example, Persian and Lebanese cooks包括玫瑰和橙色的花水,糖浆和花瓣,享用甜美的菜肴。这种做法也遍及北非,印度,中东和南欧。

Edible flowers were incorporated into baked goods and salads during the Victorian era, as the维多利亚时代developed their own “花的语言,” using them to display and communicate romance. Roses signified devotion, tulips whispered of passion, and bluebells conveyed humility. (And, had they had access toAmorphophallus titanum, which luckily for them is native only to western Sumatra, they would presumably have used it to communicate the request that the recipient should probably change their socks before attempting any further romantic overtures.)

Thepopularity of edible flowerscontinues to spread, especially throughout Western countries, with chefs all over utilizing them to create eye-catching drinks, salads, and other recipes. Some favorites are flowers that bloom from herbs like basil and cilantro, as well as lavender, roses, and lemony-peppery nasturtiums. These types of flowers are usually used in moderation, often as a garnish, topping, or small addition to recipes for intriguing smells, bright colors, and strong, unique flavors.

但都是花食用呢?一些米是什么ost common kinds? And where can you buy or obtain kinds that are safe for consumption so you can experiment with edible flowers at home?

所有花都可以食用吗?

idyllic meadow
iStock.com/borchee

如果您想知道是否可以拿起任何花和咬一口,答案是否定的。许多花不可食用 - 实际上可能是危险的食物 - 因此,最好在冒险进入大自然之前享受零食,在您看到的下一个美丽的花朵上零食。

Like mushrooms and other plants, for a flower to be edible it has to meetcertain requirements。First, it has to be nontoxic, meaning it doesn’t contain any substances that would make you sick. It also has to be innocuous — or innocent — which means it doesn’t pose a deadly threat, like releasing a poison into your body. So, it can’t make you sick or kill you. Got it.

Lastly, an edible flower must have some nutritional properties.Edible flowers can provide a small amount of nutrients such as vitamins A, C, B2 (riboflavin), and B3 (niacin), as well as different dietary minerals and phytochemical compounds.Most edible flowers are also made up of around 80% water.

作为无辜可爱的花似乎否定ed eye, never eat a flower you’re not sure about. It’s best to use a reliable reference for identification such as a book on edible flowers, a field guide, or other plant and flower identification books.

Here are a few recommendations to help you learn more about eating flowers:

Cautions with Edible Flowers

与任何可食用的东西一样,如果对您来说是新的,请先尝试少量数量,以确保它不会在您的体内产生任何不良影响或反应。虽然很少有些人可能会经历allergic reactions to edible flowers

It’s also not a good idea to eat edible flowers if you see them growing in an urban or suburban environment, unless you know the conditions under which they were grown. Flowers in community settings may have been sprayed with pesticides that would not be permitted on food crops, exposed to animal waste or gray water, or may be grown in soil contaminated with lead and/or other heavy metals. So even if the flowers themselves might otherwise be okay to eat, the stuff they’ve been exposed to makes that a bad idea.

Flowering plants from garden centers and nurseries that you can purchase may also have been treated with fertilizers and pesticides that are not approved for humans to ingest, so make sure to ask before purchasing. Or, to be safe,only buy plantsclassified作为食用。

List of Edible Flowers

Now that we’ve established that you should not go around indiscriminately chomping on every petal that catches your eye, where do you begin your exploration of edible flowers? Below are some that you might be interested in trying. It’s not an exhaustive list, so even if you don’t see it here, that doesn’t necessarily mean a variety isn’t edible.

Calendula

Garden orange  flowers - calendula (marigold).Summer landscape with blooming  flowers. Homeopathic plant,  medicine herb. Blurred background
iStock.com/ElenaVafina

Calendula officinalis是一种可食用的和深orange-yel金盏花植物吗low color. Its petals are used to sprinkle over dishes like salads, soups, and grain-based dishes for color. The flavor of edible marigolds is described as being somewhat bitter or peppery.

康乃馨

Arrangement of carnations in multicolors
istock.com/salimaksan

康乃馨(Dianthus caryophyllus)是多种戴安娜(Dianthus),也称为“粉红色”,通常用于花束和胸花。康乃馨花瓣被用作甜味和咸味菜肴的装饰,但也可以用于烘焙食品或装饰蛋糕。自17世纪以来,康乃馨花瓣已被用来制作法国利口酒夏普勒。他们的味道有点甜。

Chamomile

茶壶附近的草药甘菊茶和洋甘菊花在木桌上。乡村背景。
istock.com/valentynvolkov

Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) is a flower with white petals and a yellow center similar to a daisy, and is commonly used to make a calmingtea。整个洋甘菊花有时被用作美味菜肴的装饰。人们经常将其味道描述为略带苹果的味或草。

玉米花

Cornflower meadow
istock.com/martin wahlborg

玉米花(Centaurea cyanus), sometimes called “bachelor’s button,” are known for their intensely rich blue color. They’re primarily used as a garnish, though their petals are used in Lady Grey tea and to flavor baked goods. They’re described as having a slightly peppery or spicy taste.

Hibiscus

中国芙蓉 /芙蓉罗莎·西尼斯
iStock.com/tc397

芙蓉(芙蓉莫切托斯) are often used to attract butterflies to the garden, but their petals and calyxes (the ball-like part at the base of the flower) are also edible. Hibiscus flowers can be used to make hot or cold tea, like the Mexican牙买加Agua de。In fact, hibiscus could make one of the最健康的茶you can drink thanks to the flower’s abundant antioxidant content. Many Mexican recipes also use hibiscus petals in savory dishes like tacos and quesadillas. Hibiscus has a tart flavor and is high invitamin C

Johnny Jump-Ups

Purple violet flowers close-up.
iStock.com/Grishal_

Johnny jump-ups (中提琴三色)通常被称为野紫罗兰色,因为它们与三色五人的关系。它们的颜色范围包括蓝色,黄色,紫色,白色和橙色,并且具有薄荷味。因此,这些花经常用作饮料的装饰品mocktails

Lavender

Sunrise and dramatic clouds over Lavender Field
iStock.com/valio84sl

Lavender(Lavandula) is well known for its beautiful purple coloring, distinct fragrance, and true flowery flavor. It’s often used in teas, lemonades, and other beverages, and even in certain coffee drinks. You’ll also find lavender in baked goods.

Nasturtiums

沙拉配蔬菜和nasturtium
iStock.com/Nikolay_Donetsk

Nasturtiums (Tropaeolum) are highly versatile in that their flowers, leaves, stems, and young seed pods are all edible. You can use them in salads, to make infusedvinegars, 和to garnish drinks and recipes. Their leaves can be used like other salad greens or fresh herbs, while the seed pods are sometimes pickled and used like capers. The flavor of nasturtium is generally described as being peppery like a radish.

Orchids

Table of Cheer
iStock.com/Nikolay_Donetsk

兰花(Orchidaceae) are a common houseplant, but they’re also used as a food ingredient or garnish. Edible orchids can be used in drinks, sauces, teas, salads, and to decorate baked goods. The taste of an orchid is akin to a crisp lettuce or a watery vegetable, like a cucumber.

Pansies

pansies
istock.com/esolla

Pansies(Viola x wittrockiana)是通常用作饮料装饰,装饰烘焙食品以及某些类型的沙拉以及亚洲春卷的愉悦的小花。他们的味道非常鲜艳。

Roses

玫瑰和玫瑰芽
iStock.com/Westerstoe

Roses (Rosa) may be the flower most associated with romance, but they also have plenty to offer those in love with fine food. Rose petals and rosehips (the bottom part of the flower) are often used to make teas, syrups, jams, and the like. They’re also frequently used in desserts, sauces, and soups. The taste of a rose is flowery, fragrant, and slightly tart (mainly the rosehips) due to their high vitamin C content. Just be sure not to munch on their thorny stems!

Squash Blossoms

Squash blossoms
iStock.com/MathiaCoco

Squash blossoms (Cucurbita pepo),也称为西葫芦花或古幼型花朵,可以来自任何夏天或冬天squash。They usually come in orange and yellow shades and have more of a vegetable-like flavor, like a milder version of the squash itself. Squash blossoms are soft and delicate. They may be used as a topping for pizzas, sautéed like other vegetables, or even stuffed like a pepper or mushroom.

Growing Your Own Edible Flowers

Taking good care of my plants
iStock.com/Milan_Jovic

获得可食用的花朵的最好,最安全的地方是您自己的后院。你可以验证从许多可食用的花种子different seed supply catalogs and garden centers to make sure that what you’re growing can make it to your plate safely and without question.

You can buy edible flower seeds at the same places you get your other garden seeds, including such suppliers as:

Read individual seed packets and use a种植日历弄清楚您的居住地以及何时将它们放在地面上会成长。

同样,如果花园中心的花朵开始您要使用的花朵,而不是种子,请确保不将不用于人类食用的农药或其他化学物质应用于花。

When you grow flowers in your own garden, be sure to apply only nontoxic pesticides. It’s best to only use the petals unless you know for certain which other parts are edible. Remove the stems of the plant, as well as the pistil and the stamens (the parts with pollen).

When you harvest your flowers, shake them to remove any insects that may have taken up habitat there. It’s helpful to harvest them first thing in the morning when the flowers are open and full of moisture. You should also rinse fresh flowers before using them in dishes.

在哪里可以买到可食用的花

在托斯卡纳春天的花朵turbette旅行
iStock.com/ChiaraZeni

If you’d rather purchase edible flowers than grow your own, there are plenty of places you can find them.

Many online platforms offer fresh or freeze-dried flowers, both individually and in mixtures. Some examples include马克思食品(fresh),Gourmet Sweet Botanicals(fresh), andFreshly Preserved(freeze-dried).

Some grocery stores also sell edible flowers. You can often find fresh edible flowers by the herbs in the produce section of places likePavilions,Wegmans,Town & Country Markets, 和Gelson’s。Be sure to check them for mold, and look for flowers that have a vibrant color and aren’t wilted.

Food co-ops are another option. These are customer-owned food markets whose principles typically include supporting their local growers and economy.

And in the spring and summer, your localfarmers marketscommunity-supported agriculture(CSA) outlets are excellent sources for buying edible flowers that are locally grown.If you’re not sure where to start, check with the vendors who are selling other edible herbs and greens. They may also sell edible flowers or be able to point you toward someone who does.

How Long Do Edible Flowers Last?

Frozen Flowers in Ice Cubes
iStock.com/Manuta

Just like other fresh produce, it’s important to make sure you consume your edible flowers within their optimal range of freshness. It’s best to use freshly cut edible flowers because their flavor will be the strongest before they begin to fade. (The exception, of course, is the Enchanted Rose given to the Beast in the Disney film, which will remain fresh for decades while he tries to win the love of another. But if an enchantress gives you such a flower, you really don’t want to eat it anyway.)

Fresh edible flowers usually keep in the refrigerator for three to five days in anairtight container。Freeze-dried flowers can be stored for well up to a year or more in a cool, dry place.

You can also freeze smaller edible flowers in ice cubes and use them in your cold drinks for a unique pop of beauty and flavor. When not placed in water, edible flowers don’t freeze well — they’ll shrivel up if frozen in a plastic bag, for instance.

Certain types of edible flowers can also bedehydrated。Some of the varieties that work well in this way are pansies, nasturtiums, roses, lavender, calendula, and violas. Dehydrated edible flowers last for about a year. You can also rehydrate them if desired, or add them to recipes as is.

Edible Flower Recipes

If edible flowers are new territory to you, let the recipes below begin to spark your inner culinary artist. If you’re already an edible flower pro, then we hope these recipes bring even more inspiration.

For a bright and aromatic treat, make the Lavender Lemon Poppy Scones for your next brunch or茶会。Add vibrancy to any kitchen table with the Spring Garden Silken Tofu Salad. And wow your friends and family with both the presentation and flavor of the Hibiscus Herbed Cheese Crostini.

Get ready to make the Creamy Asparagus Flowered Risotto a part of your weekly meal rotation because it’s insanely delicious! And deliver a message of love by sharing (or not!) the Chocolate Rose Pomegranate Bites with friends.

1.Lavender Lemon Poppy Scones

Lavender Lemon Poppy Scones are a bright and stylish addition to any brunch, tea party, or snack table. Vivid and fragrant lavender is infused throughout the scone, offering a sensory experience of captivating color, comforting aroma, and floral flavor. Poppy seeds add more visual appeal and texture, and lemon brightens the flavor — making this treat one to remember.

2.Spring Garden Silken Tofu Salad

使用您的春季花园蔬菜和食用花朵制作五颜六色且美味的丝绸豆腐沙拉。在这种沙拉中,各种各样的花朵都会令人愉悦,包括蛋rose花瓣,胡椒nasturtiums或甜康乃馨。沙拉扔掉后,将它们撒在上面,以进行出色的演讲和迷人的菜肴!

3.Hibiscus Herbed Cheese Crostini

Wow your guests at your next gathering by preparing this exceptional appetizer that will capture their attention with edible flowers adding both elegance and beauty — and, that’s just the visual presentation!Once they take a bite of the crispy crostini with herbed cashew cheese spread on top, their taste buds will sing in delight over the crispy and creamy combination and bursts of flavors from the herbs. P.S. If you’re not planning a gathering, these make lovely bite-sized snacks for one!

4.Creamy Asparagus Flowered Risotto

这种快速到达的烩饭将是朋友和家人的众人愉悦者,因为它在从质地到风味到演示文稿中都赢得了所有类别的胜利,这将是一个令人愉悦的人群。腰果和营养酵母的结合产生了奶油般的俗气,而芦笋和菠菜则可以使这种可爱的绿色色调以及大量的营养。在上菜之前,用芦笋尖和充满活力的食用花装饰!

5.Chocolate Rose Pomegranate Bites

These little beauties are versatile in that they can be gifted to a loved one, shared with a friend, or saved all for yourself. The burst ofpomegranatearils along with the dark chocolate can be likened to a healthy version of dark chocolate cherries bursting in your mouth. The rose petals add a pretty garnish along with a touch of tart. This nutrient-dense, three-ingredient treat will please your palate, heart, and mind!

Make Your Plate Bloom

Although not all flowers are edible, plenty of varieties are — and you can purchase seeds or precut flowers from many different sources. With so many different types of edible flowers, each contributing a different kind of flavor profile and usage, there’s no end to how they might enhance your culinary experience. Whether you buy edible flowers or grow your own, they are a unique way to add eye-catching color and interesting flavor to food and beverages.

Tell us in the comments:

  • Have you ever had edible flowers at a restaurant or other social gathering? How were they presented?
  • Have you ever tried growing and preparing your own edible flowers? What kinds have you enjoyed and how did you store them at home?
  • If you’ve purchased edible flowers, where did you find them?

Feature Image: iStock.com/Rocky89

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